The official website of Until Our Last Breath: A Holocaust Story of Love & Partisan Resistance published by St. Martin's Press and maintained by author Michael Bart.


Arad, Yitzhak. Ghetto in Flames: The Struggle and Destruction of the Jews of Vilna in the Holocaust. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1980.

Beker, Sonia Pauline. Symphony on Fire: A Story of Music and Spirtual Resistance during the Holocaust. New Milford: Wordsmithy, 2007.

Bruchfeld, Stephane & Paul Levine. Tell ye your children...A book about the Holocaust in Europe 1933-1945. Sweden: The Living History Forum, 1998.

Cohen, Israel. Vilna: Jewish Communities Series. The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1943.

Dawidowicz, Lucy S. From That Place and Time: a Memior, 1938-1947. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1989.

Dworzecki, (Dvorzetsky), Mark.Yeruschalayim DLita in Kamf un Umkum: Histoire du Ghetto de Vilna.Paris: The Jewish Popular Union in France, 1948.

Fishman, David E. Embers Plucked from the Fire: the Rescue of Jewish Cultural Treasures in Vilna. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research: New York. 1996.

Gutman, Israel, ed. Enclyclpodia of the Holocaust. 4 vols. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 1990.

Harmatz, Joseph. From the Wings: A Long Journey, 1940-1960. Sussex, England: The Book Guild, 1998.

Kazimierz Sakowicz. Ponary Diary 1941-1943. Ed. Yitzhak Arad. New Haven: Yale University Press. 2005.

Kowalski, Isaac. A Secret Press in Nazi Europe: The Story of a Jewish United Partisan Organization. New York: Central Guide Publishers, 1969.

Kostanian-Danzig, Rachel. Spiritual Resistance in the Vilna Ghetto. Vilnius: The Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum, 2002.

Kostanian, Rachel, et al. Jewish Life in Lithuania. Vilnius: The Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum, 2001.

Kovner, Abba. A Missive to HaShomer Hatzair Partisans, 1944. Israel: Morshet Publishing House, 2002.

Kruk, Herman. The Last Days of the Jerusalem of Lithuania. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 2002.

Lazar, Chaim. Destruction and Resistance: A History of the Partisan Movement in Vilna. New York: Shengold Publishers, 1985.

Levin, Dov. Fighting Back: Lithuanian Jewry's Armed Resistance to the Nazis, 1941 - 1945. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1985.

"Pale of Settlement, Jewish." Britannica Student Encyclopedia. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 9 Feb. 2008 http;//

Ran, Leyzer. Jerusalem of Lithuania. Volumes 1-3. New York: The Laureate Press, 1974.

Rudashevski, Yitskok. The Diary of the Vilna Ghetto: June 1941 - April 1943. Israel: Ghetto Fighters' House, 1979.

Shneidman, N. N. Jerusalem of Lithuania: The Rise and Fall of Jewish Vilnius. New York: Mosaic Press, 1998.

Shneidman, N. N. The Three Tragic Heroes of the Vilnius Ghetto: Wittenberg, Sheinbaum, Gens. New York: Mosaic Press, 2002.

Shames, Morton. Memiors of a Machine Gunner Anthology on Armed Jewish Resistance 1939-1945. Ed. Isaac Kowalski. New York: Jewish Combatants Publishers House, 1985.

Sugihara, Yukiko and Anne Hashiko Akabor. Visas For Life. San Francisco: Edu-Comm, 1995.

Unknown, Ed. Nathan Cohen. The Last Days of the Vilna Ghetto: Pages from a Diary. Jerusalem: Vad Vashem.

Olgin, Moissave Joseph. The Soul of the Russian Revolution. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1917; Michigan: University of Michigan, Digitized 2006.

Photos courtesy of the following:
Leyzer Ran's The Jerusalem of Lithuania
Ghetto Fighters' House, Israel
Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum
Frank Capra's Why We Fight: Divide & Conquer
Bart Collection